Ancient Kartara/Verbs

Verbs are grouped into three or four categories based on their final sounds.

  • Group 1 consists of verbs ending with the labial consonants p, m and f.
  • Group 2 consists of the dental and retroflex consonants, but is split into two series.
    • Series 2a contains s, t and n.
    • Series 2b contains ś, and ń.
  • Group 3 consists of the velar consonants h and k.

Animations

The tables below cycle through the consonants in their groups every two seconds. Click on the checkbox by the group's name to pause that group's animation.

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Present Tense

Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -peo-p-p
1st (exclusive) -pe-puo-pae-pou
2nd -pa-para-pala
2nd (formal) -pape-pareĭ-paleĭ
3rd (animate) -pi-piro-pilo
3rd (inanimate) -popo-poro-polo
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -sio-susu-s
1st (exclusive) -se-su-s-suaĭ
2nd -si-saro-salo
2nd (formal) -sis-sareĭ-saleĭ
3rd (animate) -so-sore-sole
3rd (inanimate) -saa-sara-sala
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -śua-śaśa-ś
1st (exclusive) -śe-śu-ś-śuoĭ
2nd -śu-śuro-śuĺo
2nd (formal) -śuś-śureĭ-śuĺeĭ
3rd (animate) -śo-śore-śoĺe
3rd (inanimate) -śaa-śara-śaĺa
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -hee-h-huu
1st (exclusive) -he-heo-hoe-hoe
2nd -ha-hara-hala
2nd (formal) -hate-hareĭ-haleĭ
3rd (animate) -ha-haro-halo
3rd (inanimate) -hiki-hiri-hili

Past Tense

In past and future tenses, Group 2 is no longer split into two series. However, the final l in plural endings changes to ĺ when preceded by a 2a consonant.

Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -peto-p-p
1st (exclusive) -pee-pue-pate-potu
2nd -pu-puru-pulu
2nd (formal) -pupe-pureĭ-puleĭ
3rd (animate) -pio-pira-pila
3rd (inanimate) -pipi-piri-pili
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -soo-sisu-soto
1st (exclusive) -see-sue-sati-sutoĭ
2nd -soe-sure-sule
2nd (formal) -sos-suroĭ-sul
3rd (animate) -sae-sire-sile
3rd (inanimate) -sese-siri-sili
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -hete-h-hutu
1st (exclusive) -hii-hetu-hote-hote
2nd -ho-hore-hole
2nd (formal) -hoteĭ-horeĭ-holeĭ
3rd (animate) -hio-hera-hela
3rd (inanimate) -heko-heri-heli

Future Tense

Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -peko-poki-puki
1st (exclusive) -peke-pukeĭ-pake-poku
2nd -po-pere-pele
2nd (formal) -pope-peroĭ-peloĭ
3rd (animate) -piu-pura-pula
3rd (inanimate) -ppo-peĭro-peĭlo
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -suku-sukoĭ-sikoĭ
1st (exclusive) -seke-sekuĭ-sapa-supu
2nd -sii-soru-solu
2nd (formal) -sieĭ-soruĭ-sol
3rd (animate) -sepe-seri-seli
3rd (inanimate) -suĭa-suĭra-sla
Singular DualPaucalPlural
1st (inclusive)  -hepe-hoĭa-hua
1st (exclusive) -hoke-hoĭtu-hoĭta-hoĭta
2nd -huku-huru-hulu
2nd (formal) -hukuĭ-huruĭ-huluĭ
3rd (animate) -hepe-heri-heli
3rd (inanimate) -huĭta-huĭra-huĭla

Infinitive, Gerund and Participles

When transforming a verb into a noun or adjective, the verb takes a participle suffix.

-paĭa
G2 -soĭa
G3 -kaĭa