Ancient Kartara/Examples

The apple is red.

Hisi kam-omo ia.
apple be-3s.INAN red

It is John's apple.

Puf-ofo op-Iono hisi.
be-3s.INAN GEN-John apple

I give John the apple.

Ket-e hisi sol-Iono.
give-1s apple DAT-John

We want to give him the apple.

Kepis-u ket-oĭa hisi sol-tahi.
want-1DU.EX give-PTCP apple DAT-3s.AN

He gives it to John.

Ket-o kafa sol-Iono.
give-3s.AN 3s.INAN DAT-John

She gives it to him.

Ket-o kafa sol-tahi.
give-3s.AN 3s.INAN DAT-3s.AN

The sun shines.

Ulu pas-o.
sun shine-3s.AN

The sun is shining.

Olu puf-i pas-oĭa.
sun be-3s.AN shine-PTCP

The sun shone.

Olu pas-eo.
sun shine-3s.AN.PST

The sun will shine.

Olu pas-epe.
sun shine-3s.AN.FUT

The sun has been shining.

Olu puf-io puf-i pas-oĭa.
sun be-3s.AN.PST PERF-3s.AN shine-PTCP
When a past-tense verb is followed by the present-tense puf, it indicates the present perfect. When both verbs are puf, it's indicative of the progressive tense, as well.

The sun is shining again.

Olu puf-i tuka pas-oĭa.
sun be-3s.AN again shine-PTCP

The sun will shine tomorrow.

Olu pas-epe astoku.
sun shine.3s.AN.FUT tomorrow

The sun shines brightly.

Olu pas-o pasetu.
sun shine-3s.AN bright
Most adjectives also function as adverbs.

The bright sun shines.

Olu pasetu pas-o.
sun bright shine-3s.AN
Ancient Kartara has a tricky adjective system, where most temporary or emotional properties precede the noun (this, 2nd, ugly) while more concrete physical properties follow it (red, old, Reemish).

The sun is rising now.

Olu puf-i pu soup-aĭa.
sun be-3s.AN now rise-PTCP

All the people shouted.

Uko kart́a ilon-ile.
all person shout-3PL.AN.PST
kart́ańa (person-PL) can be used, too.

Some of the people shouted.

Uso kart́a ilon-ire.
Some person shout-3PAU.AN.PST
kart́a-ru (person-PAU) can be used, too.

Many of the people shouted twice.

Ańe kart́a-ru ilon-ire ki teto.
many person-PAU shout-3PAU.AN.PST two instance

Happy people often shout.

Toa kart́a-ńa-pu tia tues-ole. ilon-oĭa
Happy person-PL-INDF sometimes do.habitually-3PL.AN shout-PTCP
Tia tues- (lit. "always do something, sometimes") translates to "often does" and is followed by the participle form of another verb.

The kitten jumped up.

Umati seles-ae piraĭ.
kitten jump-3s.AN.PST upwards

The kitten jumped onto the table.

Umati seles-ae aĺpa saĭ-ikireta.
kitten jump-3s.AN.PST onto LAT-table

My little kitten walked away.

Op-usa umati aki ses-ae eloĭ fi-śi.
GEN-1s kitten little walk-3s.AN.PST DET.this ABL-place

It's raining.

Uĭlo toon-ole.
rain come-3PL.AN

The rain came down.

Uĭlo toon-ile piruĭ.
rain come-3PL.AN.PST down

The kitten is playing in the rain.

umati puf-i fut-oĭa oĭl-uĭlo.
kitten be-3s.AN play-PTCP LOC-rain

The rain has stopped.

Uĭlo asam-io puf-i.
rain stop-3s.AN.PST be-3s.AN

Soon the rain will stop.

Uĭlo asam-iu oĺa.
rain stop-3s.AN.FUT soon
Oĺa iki uĭlo asam-iu.
soon CONJ.ADV rain stop-3s.AN.FUT
Iki can be used to front an adverbial clause, as in the second example.

I hope the rain stops soon.

Husa siuf-e iki uĭlo asam-iu oĺa.
1s hope-1s that rain stop.3s.AN.FUT soon
Husa is optional.
Iki introduces a subordinate clause.

Once wild animals lived here.

Kala-ńa-pu oĭoki puf-ila eloĭ oĭl-śi.
animal-PL-INDF wild be-3PL.AN.PST DET.this LOC-place
The indefinite suffix is mandatory when no amount is indicated.

Slowly she looked around.

Uĺkopa teom-io peĭaĺśe oĭl-empi.
completely look.3s.PST slow LOC-3s.AN
Teom is a transitive verb, requiring a second argument.

Go away!

Pu puf-a eloĭ fi-śi.
now.IMP be-2s DET.this ABL-place
If pu precedes a bare verb, it denotes the imperative (command) mood.
Eloĭ may be omitted if the place in question is obvious to the listener.

Let's go!

Pu aĭkuańa eloĭ fi-śi.
now.IMP 1PL.IN DET.this ABL-place
Puf is optional when an affix encodes movement.

You should go.

Oap-a fi-śi. ABL-place
Demonstrating how eloĭ is optional.

I will be happy to go.

Es-puf-eke eloĭ fi-śi.
BEN.FORM-be-1s.FUT DET.this ABL-place

He will arrive soon.

Puf-iu eloĭ saĭ-śi oĺa.
be-3s.FUT DET.this LAT-place soon

The baby's ball has rolled away.

Opo-seaĭ sou somus-ese fi-śi.
GEN-baby ball roll-3s.INAN.PST ABL-place

The two boys are working together.

Aĭk-ulo-ki puf-iro sonim-aĭa.
COM-boy-DU be.3DU.AN work-PTCP

This mist will probably clear away.

Eloĭ kusuo asam-iu pokiko.
DET.this mist end-3s.AN.FUT probable

Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.

Uko oĭl-śi iki suĭtu-ńa-pu antali-lo oas-ala.
All LOC-place CONJ.ADV flower-PL-INDF beautiful-AUG grow-3PL.INAN

We should eat more slowly.

Oap-eĭ oes-oĭa peĭaĺśe-moĭ-o.
should-1PAU.IN eat-PTCP slow-COMP-AUG

You have come too soon.

Toon-oe puf-a takeĭ oĺa.
come.2s.PST PERF.2s too soon

You must write more neatly.

Saśim-a tuksun-oĭa tatu-moĭ-lo. write.PTCP careful-COMP-AUG

Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.

Iam-omo siĺao fi-enopo iki tamese śit́ami-pu ium-omo.
seem-3s.INAN stern ABL-bow CONJ.ADV wonderful palace-INDF stand.3s.INAN
Iamomo siĺao fienopo is a metaphor roughly meaning "as the stern is from the bow".

Henry's dog is lost.

Opo-Henri pei puf-i topou.
GEN-Henry dog be-3s.AN lost
Opo-Henri pei oĭl-topouśi.
GEN-Henry dog
Puf is optional when an affix encodes location.

My cat is black.

Op-usa umu puf-i uĭmu.
GEN-1s cat be-3s.AN black

The little girl's doll is broken.

Opo-kusa aki karaki puf-ofo ekafeso.
GEN-girl little doll be-3s.INAN broken

I usually sleep soundly.

Husa tia-lo tues-e ufa saas-oĭa.
1s sometimes-AUG do.habitually-1s well sleep-PTCP
Husa is optional, but would most likely be said here for clarity. Augmenting tia turns tia tues- from "often" to "usually".

The children ran after Jack.

Eme-ru iuśu selek-era saĭ-Iaka.
child-PAU followingly run-3PAU.AN.PST LAT-Jack

I can play after school.

Pen-eke fut-oĭa saĭ-santus-oĭa.
can-1s.FUT play.PTCP LAT-teach-PTCP

We went to the village for a visit.

Puf-ue saĭ-toĭka paĭ taĭkeśaĭ-pu.
be-1DU.EX.PST LAT-village for visit-INDF

We arrived at the river.

Toon-ue oĭl-ose.
arrive-1DU.EX.PST LOC-river
Using puf would translate as "we went to the river" and require the lative case.

I have been waiting for you.

Puf-ee puf-e akiś-oĭa paĭ pepa.
be-1s.PST PERF.1s wait-PTCP for 2s
Es-puf-ee puf-e akiś-oĭa.
BEN.FORM-be-1s.PST PERF-1s wait-PTCP
The first form would be used by a superior to an underling. The latter from an underling to a superior. In other cases, either could be used.

The campers sat around the fire.

Fin-oĭno-ru osan-ire kat́oĭa halo.
travel-NMLZ-PAU sit-2PAU.AN.PST around fire

A little girl with a kitten sat near me.

Kusa-pu aki aĭk-umati-pu osan-ae tasa husa.
girl-INDF little COM-kitten-INDF sit-3s.AN.PST near 1s

The child waited at the door for her father.

Eme akiś-ae oĭl-t́otoĭ paĭ o-tahi ańa.
child wait.3s.AN.PST LOC-door for GEN-3s father

Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.

Apopo iki oĭl-toĭka kusa tio-maĭ aĭoĭn-ae o-tahi umati.
Yesterday CONJ.ADV LOC-village girl old-SUPL lose-3s.AN.PST GEN-3s kitten

Were you born in this village?

Taa topatos-oe seat-eso eloĭ oĭl-toĭka?
yes/no become-3s.PST birth-ADJZ DET.this LOC-village
The interrogative pronoun can be omitted, with intonation alone indicating that it's a question. The pronoun always matches the information being requested.

Can your brother dance well?

Pali o-pepa akasa haĭf-i ufa?
how GEN-2s brother dance-3s well

Did the man leave?

Tali aluko eloĭ fi-śi?
where man DET.this ABL-place

Is your sister coming for you?

Pali o-pepa akasa saĭ-śi paĭ pepa?
how GEN-2s sister LAT-place for you
The pronoun used can reveal why the question is being asked. Here, they are asking how you are leaving, as opposed to who you are leaving with (why not me?), when you are leaving (is it going to be a while?) or even why it's happening (is your sister making you leave?) The most polite pronoun is taa, asking for a simple yes/no answer.

Can you come tomorrow?

Pepa taa saĭ-śi astoku?
2s yes/no LAT-place tomorrow
The interrogative pronoun precedes a regular noun, but follows a personal pronoun.

Have the neighbors gone away for the winter?

Taa foatia-ki fi-śi paĭ tarhuĭa?
yes/no neighbor-DU ABL-place for winter

Does the robin sing in the rain?

Taa posko-pu si palaku ia totof-ilo oĭl-uĭlo?
yes/no bird-INDF with chest red sing-3PL.AN LOC-rain
When talking about a generic noun, the noun receives -pu without any number marker, but the verb takes the 3rd person plural with the proper animacy. (The language lacks a word for 'robin', hence 'bird with red chest'.) This becomes optional when the genericness is implied via quantity adjectives like 'all' or 'many'.

Are you going with us to the concert?

Pepa taa saĭ-teto sora si huru?
2s yes/no ABL-event music with 1PAU.EX

Have you ever travelled in the jungle?

Taa fin-oe oĭl-t́au tinta?
yes/no travel-2s.PST LOC-forest hot
As usual, the personal pronoun is optional.

We sailed down the river for several miles.

Suik-utoĭ piruĭ ose paĭ foĭ-too-ru.
sail-1PL.EX.PST downstream river for PER-mile-PAU
Paĭ, when paired with the perlative case, indicates a range of time or distance.

Everybody knows about hunting.

Uko kart́a aof-ilo paĭ ulanafo.
All person know-3PL.AN about hunting

On a sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.

Oĭl-toso-pu olukopa saĭ-aakulo iki utis-ati fin-oĭa saĭ-ome-ńa.
LOC-morning-INDF sunny LAT-summer.solstice CONJ.ADV start-1PAU.EX.PST move-PTCP LAT-mountain-PL

Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks.

Tom iah-io paĭ opo-kala satuĭke-ru.
Tom laugh-3s.AN.PST at GEN-land.animal game-PAU

An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.

Aluko-pu tio aĭk-sestaka-pu ium-io oplo t́at́io
man-INDF old COM-walking.stick-INDF stand-3s.AN.PST beside fence
Si sestaka is also acceptable, as "man" and "walking stick" don't share the same animacy. However, the comitative prefix is used due to the man being inseparable from the walking stick.

The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.

Op-iuĭt́io pikaĭla es-ese aĺas-oĭa um-atofa śuimu.
GEN-squirrel nest do-3s.INAN.PST hide-PTCP INS-branch drooping
Es is used for passive-voice constructions such as the above, similar to how English uses "to be". Es takes the active conjugation while the passive verb takes the participle form.

The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.

Sea-ńa aki akiś-ili toĺo keĭa pakasa paĭ ulu enatoĭ-kopa taoto.
seed-PL little wait-3PL.INAN.PST patiently under snow for sun spring-ADJZ warm

Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.

Ańe kusa-ńa aki si kat́usuĭtu oĭl-śaa haĭf-ila kat́oĭa foĭ-haleto.
many girl-PL little with LOC-head dance-3PL.AN around PER-bonfire

The cover of the basket fell to the floor.

Op-atkao onipsa uis-ese saĭ-tekeĭa.
GEN-basket cover fall.3s.IN.PST LAT-floor

The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.

Huka kulo oĭl-tupaĭa akiś-ae oĭl-kukusiśi.
first boy LOC-line stop-3s.AN.PST LOC-entrance

On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.

Oĭl-upire-pu aki aĺpa t́o iki atipa asuka-pu tio. es-ae puf-aĭa
LOC-house-INDF little hill CONJ.ADV wise woman-INDF old do-3s.AN.PST be-PTCP
The use of iki here indicates that the preceding phrase is the object of the following transitive verb.

During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.

Oĭl-puf-ue oĭl-tusuo-ńa iki tia tues-ue ses-oĭa oĭl-aulnuu-ńa.
LOC-be.1DU.EX.PST LOC-farm-PL CONJ.ADV sometimes do.habitually-1DU.EX.PST walk-PTCP LOC-pasture-PL

When will your guests from the city arrive?

Uli op-esa torteno-ru kafi-toĭketo eloĭ saĭ-śi?
when GEN-2s.FORM guest-PAU ADJZ.coming.from-city this LAT-place

Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.

Op-ose oĭl-pai tasa iki o-tahi finiśi atań-o poto saĭ-kuĭu.
GEN-river LOC-mouth near CONJ.ADV GEN-3s.AN course turn-3s.AN sharp LAT-east

Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.

T́afoa ome-ki isea iki hapitutaĭ kirampati-pu kam-imi.
between mountain-DU lofty CONJ.ADV fertile valley-INDF be.3s.INAN.PST

Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.

Oĭl-puĭtia iki seĭo-ńa-pu ia isea oas-ili.
LOC-wheat CONJ.ADV poppy-PL-INDF red tall grow-3PL.INAN.PST

The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.

Opo-t́ukea-ńa koĭmeĭ taĭuse-ńa es-ili sukeĭn -oĭa fi-t́ala.
GEN-oak-PL strong root-PL do-3PL.INAN.PST tear-PTCP ABL-ground

The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.

Ulu teom-io piruĭ foĭ-atofa-ru fut-oĭa eme-ru.
Sun look-3s.AN.PST down PER-branch-PAU play-ADJZ child-PAU

The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.

Koa okuĭ ataf-io op-usa foĭ-śari oke aleĭsokoe teĭośaĭ-pu.
west wind blow-3s.INAN.PST GEN-1s PER-face like friendly caress-INDF

The spool of thread rolled across the floor.

Opuo ati suo somus-ese foĭ-tekeĭa.
spool of thread roll-3s.INAN.PST PER-floor

A box of growing plants stood in the window.

Tatoimo-pu ati oas-oĭa oĭomo-ru osan-ae oĭl-ako.
box-INDF of grow-ADJZ plant-PAU sit-3s.INAN.PST LOC-window
Large objects like houses stand. Smaller objects only sit.

I am very happy.

Puf-e toa-lo.
be-1s happy-AUG

These oranges are juicy.

Eloĭ tao-ru śaĭsu kam-oro uĭtamukopa.
this fruit-PAU brown/orange be-3PAU.INAN juicy

Sea water is salty.

Uĭtese-pu tafem-omo se.
saltwater-INDF have-3PAU.INAN salt
The word for saltwater is also used for the ocean. The difference is that the ocean takes the animate gender!

The streets are full of people.

Oset́ala-ńa puf-ilo kart́a-kopa.
street-PL be.3PL.AN person-ADJZ
The word for street is based on the word for river, and therefore takes its animate gender. The suffix -kopa most closely resembles the English suffix -ful.

Sugar tastes sweet.

Tipaĭ soĭs-o pupaĭ.
sugar taste-3s.INAN sweet

The fire feels hot.

Halo tafem-i tinta.
fire has-3s.AN hot
"Feel" in this context usually translates as "have".

The little girl seemed lonely.

Kusa aki iam-io hulo.
girl little seem-3s.AN.PST lonely

The little boy's father had once been a sailor.

Opo-kulo aki ańa kam-io puf-io suikuaĭ-pu.
GEN-boy little father be-3s.AN.PST PERF-3s.AN.PST sailor-INDF
When a past-tense verb is followed by the past-tense puf, it indicates the past perfect.

I have lost my blanket.

Aĭoĭn-ee puf-e op-usa aĭot́a.
lose-1s.PST PERF-1s GEN-1s blanket

A robin has built his nest in the apple tree.

Posko-pu si palaku ia tiś-ae puf-i o-tahi piaĭsko oĭl-t́itao hisi.
bird-INDF with chest red make-3s.AN.PST PERF-3s.AN GEN-3s.AN nest LOC-fruit.tree appple

At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside.

Oĭl-tisia iki oes-ue op-uki tielasa oplo hiat́ala.
LOC-noon CONJ.ADV eat-1DU.EX.PST GEN-1DU.EX lunch by roadside

Mr. Jones made a knife for his little boy.

Emokefe Ionse tiś-ae op-empi es-kulo aki tiaĭ-pu.
Mr Jones make-3s.AN.PST GEN-3s.AN.FORM BEN-boy little knife-INDF

Their voices sound very happy.

O-tasaru inaĭo-ru ion-ire toa-lo.
GEN-3PAU.AN voice-PAU seem-3PAU.AN.PST happy-AUG

Is today Monday?

Taa apape kam-i Kat́apaso?
yes/no today be-3s.AN Monday?

Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?

Uko tano uis-ala puf-olo fi-t́io?
All leaf fall-3PL.INAN.PST PERF-3PL.INAN ABL-tree

Will you be ready on time?

Taa puf-u puf-o taśo oĭl-t́aĭ?
yes/no be-2s.PST PERF-2s.FUT ready LOC-correct
When a past-tense verb is followed by the future-tense puf, it indicates the future perfect. Oĭlt́aĭ, literally "in the time or place of correctness", is used to mean both "on time" and "in the right place".

Will you send this message for me?

Seĭoń-e ikeuk-uku eloĭ karau?
request-1s send-2s.FUT this message
Seĭoń indicates the action requested is for the speaker, unless specified otherwise immediately afterward (such as, "Seĭońo esBob ikeukuku eloĭ karau?", which would indicate the request is from Bob). The following verb is almost always in future-tense, though it might be in present-tense if the request is an immediate command.

Are you waiting for me?

Puf-afe akiś-oĭa paĭ husa?
be-2s.FORM wait-PTCP for 1s

Is this the first kitten of the litter?

Kam-i op-asasa huka umati?
be-3s.INAN GEN-litter first kitten
Genitive precedes other demonstratives.

Are these shoes too big for you?

Eloĭ sauĭ-ki kam-a takeĭ aluĭ fao pepa?
this shoe-DU be-2s too.much big for 2s
As an opinion, takeĭ always precedes the word it modifies, even when it's an adjective.

How wide is the River?

Salo toaĭ ose kam-i?
what width river be-3s.AN


Pu ioĭs-i.
now.IMP listen-2s

Sit here by me.

Pu osan-i śi oplo husa.
now.IMP sit-2s place by me

Keep this secret until tomorrow.

Kaman-i eloĭ si impolisaĭ fi-astoku.
keep-2s this with secrecy ABL-tomorrow
Pu can be omitted for polite requests and when the context makes the imperative mood obvious.

Come with us.

Pu fin-i si huru.
now.IMP go-2s with 1PAU.EX

Bring your friends with you.

Pepa aĭk-aleĭso-ru saĭ-śi.
2s COM-friend-PAU LAT-place

Be careful.

Pu aeń-u tatu.
now.IMP care-2s carefully

Have some tea.

Aiś-e pefaĭ-ru-pu.
offer-1s tea-PAU-INDF
The plural is often used as a shorthand for the entirety of something, with the paucal denoting a portion of that. Uso pefaĭ is also acceptable. If the subject of the offer isn't clear from the context, the correct pronoun (or name) can be used before the verb.

Pip and his dog were great friends.

Pipo o-tahi pei kam-uru ufa-lo aleĭso-ki.
Pip and GEN-3s dog be-3DU.PST good-AUG friend-DU
It is common to use kam instead of puf to denote the permanence of the friendship.

John and Elizabeth are brother and sister.

Iono Elisape kam-ara akasa-ki.
John and Elizabeth be-3DU sibling-DU

You and I will go together.

Aĭkuki fin-ekuĭ.
Pepa aĭkusa finekuĭ is also acceptable, denoting separateness before joining together.

They opened all the doors and windows.

Kukof-ira uko t́otoĭ-ńa ako-ńa.
open-3PAU.PST all door-PL and window-PL
The plural markers are optional (or might be traded for paucal or dual suffixes).

He is small, but strong.

Kam-a aki, ieĭ koĭmeĭ.
be-3s small but strong

Is this tree an oak or a maple?

Salo t́io kam-omo t́ukea-pu a t́uśaĭ-pu?
what tree be-3s.INAN oak-INDF or maple-INDF

Does the sky look blue or gray?

Kompu iam-i tioto a oksomse?
sky seem-3s.AN or gray
Takuni is a dark shade of blue, like navy or cobalt. Tioto is lighter, like cyan or sky blue. Note that the sky is considered animate.

Come with your father or mother.

Pu toon-ii o-pepa aĭk-ańa o aĭk-aorma.
IMP come-2s.FUT GEN-2s COM-father or COM-mother
The possessive pronoun can be distributed across and/or clauses, or you can apply it to both nouns separately: opepa aĭkańa o opepa aĭkaorma.

I am tired, but very happy.

Puf-e saasu, ieĭ toa-lo.
be-1s tired but happy-AUG.

He played a tune on his wonderful flute.

Touĭn-ae sorio-pu op-empi tamese umu-tiatei.
play-3s.AN.PST tune-INDF GEN-3s.AN.FORM wonderful INS-flute

Toward the end of August the days grow much shorter.

Teĭkuneso asaśaĭ paĭ hat́upu iki paso-ńa akip-ilo takeĭ.
towards ending for summer CONJ.ADV day-PL shrink-3PL.INAN much
Teĭkuneso points at a specific (though possibly unknown) portion of the noun it modifies. (Paĭ asaśaĭ would point to the exact end.)

A company of soldiers marched over the hill and across the meadow.

Haokariso-pu aĭkses-ae piraĭ foĭ-t́o foĭ-tite.
company.of.soldiers-INDF march-3s.AN.PST over PER-hill and PER-meadow
Piraĭ is used before foĭt́o to disabiguate that they are going over the hill, not along its edge.

The first part of the story is very interesting.

Huka pukunuoĭ ta koĭasu kam-omo uĭlsi-lo.
first portion in story be-3s.INAN interesting-AUG

The crow dropped some pebbles into the pitcher and raised the water to the brim.

Aheu śuĭrim-io t́akoati-ru-pu saĭ-tatio tue śaĭrim-io uĭte saĭ-kata piraĭ.
crow drop-3s.PST pebble-PAU-INDF LAT-pitcher & raise-3s.PST water LAT-edge upper
Tue links verb phrases. links noun phrases and adjectives.

The baby clapped her hands and laughed in glee.

Seaĭ talus-ae tue iah-io si toa-lo.
baby clap-3s.AN.PST and laugh-3s.AN.PST with happy-AUG

Stop your game and be quiet.

Pu akiś-u o-pepa satuĭke tue tofoas-i.
IMP stop-2s GEN-2s game and be.quiet-2s

The sound of the drums grew louder and louder.

Opo-foru-ru sopio puf-iri opoĭo-moĭ-lo opoĭo-moĭ-lo.
GEN-drum-PAU sound be-3PAU.INAN.PST loud-COMP-AUG and loud-COMP-AUG

Do you like summer or winter better?

Eli ipan-oe ufa-moĭ-lo soĭ tarhuĭa a hat́upu?
which like-2s good-COMP-AUG of.the.following winter or summer

That boy will have a wonderful trip.

Eĭna kulo tafem-iu tamese fiśaĭ-pu.
that boy have-3s.AN.FUT wonderful trip-INDF

They won the first two games, but lost the last one.

Utip-ila huka satuĭke-ki, uoĭ teĺoś-ile oĺai eĭloĭ
won-3PL.ANIM.PST first game-DU but lose-3PL.ANIM.PST last

Take this note, carry it to your mother; and wait for an answer.

Pu oĭpup-a eloĭ karaati, ikeuk-a o-pepa sai-aorma; tue akiś-u paĭ puĭsaśaĭ-pu.
IMP receive-2s this note deliver-2s GEN-2s LAT-mother and wait-2s for answer-INDF

I awoke early, dressed hastily, and went down to breakfast.

Soko feuń-e pokaĭ, foatatu t́asaf-ee, tue śuim-ee paĭ t́aśeĭ.
early wake-1s.PST REFL hasty dress-1s.PST and go.down-1s.PST for breakfast
The reflexive pronoun pokaĭ stands in for any noun, typically the last reference. Both feuń and t́asaf are transitive and require an object, but since the reflexive was used for the first verb in the sentence, the second can be omitted and will be understood to have a reflexive object as well.

Aha! I have caught you!

Etaĭ! kikaf-ee puf-e pepa!
Aha! catch-1s.PST PERF-1s 2s

This string is too short!

Eloĭ suo puf-ofo takeĭ aĭlo!
this string be-3s.INAN too short