Ancient Kartara/Examples

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Large-Text Examples

From Canoe Mates in Canada: Three Boys Afloat on the Saskatchewan by St. George Rathborne

Kneeling in a "bullboat," fashioned from the skin of an animal, and wielding a paddle with the dexterity only to be attained after years of practice in canoeing, a sturdily-built and thoroughly bronzed Canadian lad glanced ever and anon back along the course over which he had so recently passed; and then up at the black storm clouds hurrying out of the mysterious North.

Considering that he was in so vast a wilderness, this adventurous lad appeared to have scant luggage in his well battered bullboat — indeed, beyond the buckskin jacket, which he had thrown off because of his exertions, there did not seem to be anything at all aboard the craft, not even a gun, by means of which he might provide himself with food while on the journey downstream.
oĭlsiasikieto —
This singular fact would seem to indicate that he might have had trouble of some sort back yonder.
Indeed, the occasional glances which he cast over his shoulder added strength to this possibility; though the look upon his strong face was more in the line of chagrin and anger than fear.


Single-Sentence Examples

The apple is red.

Hisi kam-omo ia.
apple be-3s.INAN red

It is John's apple.

Puf-ofo op-Iono hisi.
be-3s.INAN GEN-John apple

I give John the apple.

Ket-e hisi sol-Iono.
give-1s apple DAT-John

We want to give him the apple.

Kepis-u ket-oĭa hisi sol-tahi.
want-1DU.EX give-PTCP apple DAT-3s.AN

He gives it to John.

Ket-o kafa sol-Iono.
give-3s.AN 3s.INAN DAT-John

She gives it to him.

Ket-o kafa sol-tahi.
give-3s.AN 3s.INAN DAT-3s.AN

The sun shines.

Ulu pas-o.
sun shine-3s.AN

The sun is shining.

Olu puf-i pas-oĭa.
sun be-3s.AN shine-PTCP

The sun shone.

Olu pas-eo.
sun shine-3s.AN.PST

The sun will shine.

Olu pas-epe.
sun shine-3s.AN.FUT

The sun has been shining.

Olu pas-ae puf-i es-oĭa.
sun shine-3s.AN.PST PERF-3s.AN PROG-PTCP
When a past-tense verb is followed by the present-tense puf, it indicates the present perfect. Es in participle form after the verb(s) indicates the action is continuing (progressive).

The sun is shining again.

Olu puf-i tuka pas-oĭa.
sun be-3s.AN again shine-PTCP

The sun will shine tomorrow.

Olu pas-epe astoku.
sun shine.3s.AN.FUT tomorrow

The sun shines brightly.

Olu pas-o pasetu.
sun shine-3s.AN bright
Most adjectives also function as adverbs.

The bright sun shines.

Olu pasetu pas-o.
sun bright shine-3s.AN
Ancient Kartara has a tricky adjective system, where most temporary or emotional properties precede the noun (this, 2nd, ugly) while more concrete physical properties follow it (red, old, Reemish).

The sun is rising now.

Olu puf-i pu soup-aĭa.
sun be-3s.AN now rise-PTCP

All the people shouted.

Uko kart́a ilon-ile.
all person shout-3PL.AN.PST
kart́ańa (person-PL) can be used, too.

Some of the people shouted.

Uso kart́a ilon-ire.
Some person shout-3PAU.AN.PST
kart́a-ru (person-PAU) can be used, too.

Many of the people shouted twice.

Ańe kart́a-ru ilon-ire ki teto.
many person-PAU shout-3PAU.AN.PST two instance

Happy people often shout.

Toa kart́a-ńa-pu tia tues-ole. ilon-oĭa
Happy person-PL-INDF sometimes do.habitually-3PL.AN shout-PTCP
Tia tues- (lit. "always do something, sometimes") translates to "often does" and is followed by the participle form of another verb.

The kitten jumped up.

Umati seles-ae piraĭ.
kitten jump-3s.AN.PST upwards

The kitten jumped onto the table.

Umati seles-ae aĺpa saĭ-ikireta.
kitten jump-3s.AN.PST onto LAT-table

My little kitten walked away.

Op-usa umati aki ses-ae fi-emiri.
GEN-1s kitten little walk-3s.AN.PST ABL-here

It's raining.

Uĭlo toon-ole.
rain come-3PL.AN

The rain came down.

Uĭlo toon-ile piruĭ.
rain come-3PL.AN.PST down

The kitten is playing in the rain.

umati puf-i fut-oĭa oĭl-uĭlo.
kitten be-3s.AN play-PTCP LOC-rain

The rain has stopped.

Uĭlo asam-io puf-i.
rain stop-3s.AN.PST be-3s.AN

Soon the rain will stop.

Uĭlo asam-iu oĺa.
rain stop-3s.AN.FUT soon
Oĺa iki uĭlo asam-iu.
soon CONJ.ADV rain stop-3s.AN.FUT
Iki can be used to front an adverbial clause, as in the second example.

I hope the rain stops soon.

Husa siuf-e iki uĭlo asam-iu oĺa.
1s hope-1s that rain stop.3s.AN.FUT soon
Husa is optional.
Iki introduces a subordinate clause.

Once wild animals lived here.

Kala-ńa-pu oĭoki puf-ila oĭl-emiri.
animal-PL-INDF wild be-3PL.AN.PST LOC-here
The indefinite suffix is mandatory when no amount is indicated.

Slowly she looked around.

Uĺkopa teom-io peĭaĺśe oĭl-empi.
completely look.3s.PST slow LOC-3s.AN
Teom is a transitive verb, requiring a second argument.

Go away!

Pu puf-a fi-emiri.
now.IMP be-2s ABL-here
If pu precedes a bare verb, it denotes the imperative (command) mood.
Eloĭ may be omitted if the place in question is obvious to the listener.

Let's go!

Pu aĭkuańa fi-emiri.
now.IMP 1PL.INCL ABL-here
Puf is optional when an affix encodes movement.

You should go.

Oap-a fi-emiri. ABL-here
Demonstrating how eloĭ is optional.

I will be happy to go.

Es-puf-eke fi-emiri.
BEN.FORM-be-1s.FUT ABL-here

He will arrive soon.

Puf-iu saĭ-emiri oĺa.
be-3s.FUT LAT-here soon

The baby's ball has rolled away.

Opo-seaĭ sou somus-ese fi-emiri.
GEN-baby ball roll-3s.INAN.PST ABL-here

The two boys are working together.

Aĭk-ulo-ki puf-iro sonim-aĭa.
COM-boy-DU be.3DU.AN work-PTCP

This mist will probably clear away.

Eloĭ kusuo asam-iu pokiko.
DET.this mist end-3s.AN.FUT probable

Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.

Suĭtu-ńa-pu antali-lo oas-ala foĭ-śi.
flower-PL-INDF beautiful-AUG grow-3PL.INAN PER-place

We should eat more slowly.

Oap-eĭ oes-oĭa peĭaĺśe-moĭ-o.
should-1PAU.INCL eat-PTCP slow-COMP-AUG

You have come too soon.

Toon-oe puf-a takeĭ oĺa.
come-2s.PST PERF.2s too soon

You must write more neatly.

Saśim-a tuksun-oĭa tatu-moĭ-lo. write.PTCP careful-COMP-AUG

Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.

Iam-omo siĺao fi-enopo iki tamese śit́ami-pu ium-omo.
seem-3s.INAN stern ABL-bow CONJ.ADV wonderful palace-INDF stand.3s.INAN
Iamomo siĺao fienopo is a metaphor roughly meaning "as the stern is from the bow".

Henry's dog is lost.

Opo-Henri pei puf-i topou.
GEN-Henry dog be-3s.AN lost
Opo-Henri pei oĭl-topouśi.
GEN-Henry dog
Puf is optional when an affix encodes location.

My cat is black.

Op-usa umu puf-i uĭmu.
GEN-1s cat be-3s.AN black

The little girl's doll is broken.

Opo-kusa aki karaki puf-ofo ekafeso.
GEN-girl little doll be-3s.INAN broken

I usually sleep soundly.

Husa tia-lo tues-e ufa saas-oĭa.
1s sometimes-AUG do.habitually-1s well sleep-PTCP
Husa is optional, but would most likely be said here for clarity. Augmenting tia turns tia tues- from "often" to "usually".

The children ran after Jack.

Eme-ru iuśu selek-era saĭ-Iaka.
child-PAU followingly run-3PAU.AN.PST LAT-Jack

I can play after school.

Pen-eke fut-oĭa saĭ-santus-oĭa.
can-1s.FUT play.PTCP LAT-teach-PTCP

We went to the village for a visit.

Puf-ue saĭ-toĭka paĭ taĭkeśaĭ-pu.
be-1DU.EX.PST LAT-village for visit-INDF

We arrived at the river.

Toon-ue oĭl-ose.
arrive-1DU.EX.PST LOC-river
Using puf would translate as "we went to the river" and require the lative case.

I have been waiting for you.

Puf-ee puf-e akiś-oĭa paĭ pepa.
be-1s.PST PERF.1s wait-PTCP for 2s
Es-puf-ee puf-e akiś-oĭa.
BEN.FORM-be-1s.PST PERF-1s wait-PTCP
The first form would be used by a superior to an underling. The latter from an underling to a superior. In other cases, either could be used.

The campers sat around the fire.

Fin-oĭno-ru osan-ire kat́oĭa halo.
travel-NMLZ-PAU sit-2PAU.AN.PST around fire

A little girl with a kitten sat near me.

Kusa-pu aki aĭk-umati-pu osan-ae tasa husa.
girl-INDF little COM-kitten-INDF sit-3s.AN.PST near 1s

The child waited at the door for her father.

Eme akiś-ae oĭl-t́otoĭ paĭ o-tahi ańa.
child wait.3s.AN.PST LOC-door for GEN-3s father

Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.

Oĭl-apopo kusa tio-maĭ oĭl-toĭka aĭoĭn-ae o-tahi umati.
LOC-yesterday girl old-SUPL LOC-village lose-3s.AN.PST GEN-3s kitten

Were you born in this village?

Taa topatos-oe seat-eso eloĭ oĭl-toĭka?
yes/no become-3s.PST birth-ADJZ DET.this LOC-village
The interrogative pronoun can be omitted, with intonation alone indicating that it's a question. The pronoun always matches the information being requested.

Can your brother dance well?

Pali o-pepa akasa haĭf-i ufa?
how GEN-2s brother dance-3s well

Did the man leave?

Tali aluko fi-emiri?
where man ABL-here

Is your sister coming for you?

Pali o-pepa akasa saĭ-emiri paĭ pepa?
how GEN-2s sister LAT-here for you
The pronoun used can reveal why the question is being asked. Here, they are asking how you are leaving, as opposed to who you are leaving with (why not me?), when you are leaving (is it going to be a while?) or even why it's happening (is your sister making you leave?) The most polite pronoun is taa, asking for a simple yes/no answer.

Can you come tomorrow?

Pepa taa saĭ-emori astoku?
2s yes/no LAT-there tomorrow
The interrogative pronoun precedes a regular noun, but follows a personal pronoun.

Have the neighbors gone away for the winter?

Taa foatia-ki fi-emiri paĭ tarhuĭa?
yes/no neighbor-DU ABL-here for winter

Does the robin sing in the rain?

Taa posko-pu si palaku ia totof-ilo oĭl-uĭlo?
yes/no bird-INDF with chest red sing-3PL.AN LOC-rain
When talking about a generic noun, the noun receives -pu without any number marker, but the verb takes the 3rd person plural with the proper animacy. (The language lacks a word for 'robin', hence 'bird with red chest'.) This becomes optional when the genericness is implied via quantity adjectives like 'all' or 'many'.

Are you going with us to the concert?

Pepa taa saĭ-teto sora si huru?
2s yes/no ABL-event music with 1PAU.EX

Have you ever travelled in the jungle?

Taa fin-oe oĭl-t́au tinta?
yes/no travel-2s.PST LOC-forest hot
As usual, the personal pronoun is optional.

We sailed down the river for several miles.

Suik-utoĭ piruĭ ose paĭ foĭ-too-ru.
sail-1PL.EX.PST downstream river for PER-mile-PAU
Paĭ, when paired with the perlative case, indicates a range of time or distance.

Everybody knows about hunting.

Uko kart́a aof-ilo paĭ ulanafo.
All person know-3PL.AN about hunting

On a sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.

Oĭl-toso-pu olukopa saĭ-aakulo utis-ati fin-oĭa saĭ-ome-ńa.
LOC-morning-INDF sunny LAT-summer.solstice start-1PAU.EX.PST move-PTCP LAT-mountain-PL

Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks.

Tom iah-io paĭ opo-kala satuĭke-ru.
Tom laugh-3s.AN.PST at GEN-land.animal game-PAU

An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.

Aluko-pu tio aĭk-sestaka-pu ium-io oplo t́at́io
man-INDF old COM-walking.stick-INDF stand-3s.AN.PST beside fence
Si sestaka is also acceptable, as "man" and "walking stick" don't share the same animacy. However, the comitative prefix is used due to the man being inseparable from the walking stick.

The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.

Op-iuĭt́io pikaĭla es-ese aĺas-oĭa um-atofa śuimu.
GEN-squirrel nest do-3s.INAN.PST hide-PTCP INS-branch drooping
Es is used for passive-voice constructions such as the above, similar to how English uses "to be". Es takes the active conjugation while the passive verb takes the participle form.

The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.

Sea-ńa aki akiś-ili toĺo keĭa pakasa paĭ ulu enatoĭ-kopa taoto.
seed-PL little wait-3PL.INAN.PST patiently under snow for sun spring-ADJZ warm

Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.

Ańe kusa-ńa aki si kat́usuĭtu oĭl-śaa haĭf-ila kat́oĭa foĭ-haleto.
many girl-PL little with LOC-head dance-3PL.AN around PER-bonfire

The cover of the basket fell to the floor.

Op-atkao onipsa uis-ese saĭ-tekeĭa.
GEN-basket cover fall.3s.INAN.PST LAT-floor

The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.

Huka kulo oĭl-tupaĭa akiś-ae oĭl-kukusiśi.
first boy LOC-line stop-3s.AN.PST LOC-entrance

On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.

Oĭl-upire-pu aki aĺpa t́o atipa asuka-pu tio es-ae puf-aĭa.
LOC-house-INDF little hill wise woman-INDF old do-3s.AN.PST be-PTCP

During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.

Oĭl-puf-ue oĭl-tusuo-ńa tia tues-ue ses-oĭa oĭl-aulnuu-ńa.
LOC-be.1DU.EX.PST LOC-farm-PL sometimes do.habitually-1DU.EX.PST walk-PTCP LOC-pasture-PL

When will your guests from the city arrive?

Uli op-esa torteno-ru kafi-toĭketo saĭ-emiri?
when GEN-2s.FORM guest-PAU ADJZ.coming.from-city LAT-here

Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.

Op-ose oĭl-pai tasa o-tahi finiśi atań-o poto saĭ-kuĭu.
GEN-river LOC-mouth near GEN-3s.AN course turn-3s.AN sharp LAT-east

Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.

T́afoa ome-ki isea hapitutaĭ kirampati-pu kam-imi.
between mountain-DU lofty fertile valley-INDF be.3s.INAN.PST

Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.

Oĭl-puĭtia seĭo-ńa-pu ia isea oas-ili.
LOC-wheat poppy-PL-INDF red tall grow-3PL.INAN.PST

The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.

Opo-t́ukea-ńa koĭmeĭ taĭuse-ńa es-ili sukeĭn -oĭa fi-t́ala.
GEN-oak.tree-PL strong root-PL do-3PL.INAN.PST tear-PTCP ABL-ground

The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.

Ulu teom-io piruĭ foĭ-atofa-ru fut-oĭa eme-ru.
Sun look-3s.AN.PST down PER-branch-PAU play-ADJZ child-PAU

The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.

Kafi-koa okuĭ ataf-io op-usa foĭ-śari oke aleĭsokoe teĭośaĭ-pu.
ADJZ.from-west wind blow-3s.AN.PST GEN-1s PER-face like friendly caress-INDF

The spool of thread rolled across the floor.

Opuo ati suo somus-ese foĭ-tekeĭa.
spool of thread roll-3s.INAN.PST PER-floor

A box of growing plants stood in the window.

Tatoimo-pu ati oas-oĭa oĭomo-ru osan-ae oĭl-ako.
box-INDF of grow-ADJZ plant-PAU sit-3s.INAN.PST LOC-window
Large objects like houses stand. Smaller objects only sit.

I am very happy.

Puf-e toa-lo.
be-1s happy-AUG

These oranges are juicy.

Eloĭ-ru tao-ru śaĭsu kam-oro uĭtamukopa.
DET.this-PAU fruit-PAU brown/orange be-3PAU.INAN juicy

Sea water is salty.

Uĭtese-pu tafem-omo se.
saltwater-INDF have-3PAU.INAN salt
The word for saltwater is also used for the ocean. The difference is that the ocean takes the animate gender!

The streets are full of people.

Oset́ala-ńa puf-ilo kart́a-kopa.
street-PL be.3PL.AN person-ADJZ
The word for street is based on the word for river, and therefore takes its animate gender. The suffix -kopa most closely resembles the English suffix -ful.

Sugar tastes sweet.

Tipaĭ soĭs-o pupaĭ.
sugar taste-3s.INAN sweet

The fire feels hot.

Halo tafem-i tinta.
fire has-3s.AN hot
"Feel" in this context usually translates as "have". Takeis is used to convey what a person feels about themselves.

The little girl seemed lonely.

Kusa aki iam-io hulo.
girl little seem-3s.AN.PST lonely

The little boy's father had once been a sailor.

Opo-kulo aki ańa kam-io puf-io suikuaĭ-pu.
GEN-boy little father be-3s.AN.PST PERF-3s.AN.PST sailor-INDF
When a past-tense verb is followed by the past-tense puf, it indicates the past perfect.

I have lost my blanket.

Aĭoĭn-ee puf-e op-usa aĭot́a.
lose-1s.PST PERF-1s GEN-1s blanket

A robin has built his nest in the apple tree.

Posko-pu si palaku ia tiś-ae puf-i o-tahi piaĭsko oĭl-t́itao hisi-kopa.
bird-INDF with chest red make-3s.AN.PST PERF-3s.AN GEN-3s.AN nest LOC-fruit.tree appple-ADJZ

At noon we ate our lunch by the roadside.

Oĭl-tisia oes-ue op-uki tielasa oplo hiat́ala.
LOC-noon eat-1DU.EX.PST GEN-1DU.EX lunch by roadside

Mr. Jones made a knife for his little boy.

Emokefe Ionse tiś-ae op-empi es-kulo aki tiaĭ-pu.
Mr Jones make-3s.AN.PST GEN-3s.AN.FORM BEN-boy little knife-INDF

Their voices sound very happy.

O-tasaru inaĭo-ru ion-ire toa-lo.
GEN-3PAU.AN voice-PAU seem-3PAU.AN.PST happy-AUG

Is today Monday?

Taa apape kam-i Kat́apaso?
yes/no today be-3s.AN Monday?

Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?

Uko tano uis-ala puf-olo fi-t́io?
All leaf fall-3PL.INAN.PST PERF-3PL.INAN ABL-tree

Will you be ready on time?

Taa puf-u puf-o taśo t́aĭ emori?
yes/no be-2s.PST PERF-2s.FUT ready correct then
When a past-tense verb is followed by the future-tense puf, it indicates the future perfect. T́aĭ emori, literally "the correct then", translates to "on time". Ensua can be used in place of emori if needed.

Will you send this message for me?

Seĭoń-e ikeuk-uku eloĭ karau?
request-1s send-2s.FUT DET.this message
Seĭoń indicates the action requested is from the speaker and to the listener, unless specified otherwise (such as, "Bob seĭońo umuTom ikeukuku eloĭ karau?", which would indicate the request is from Bob and directed at Tom [instrumental case]). The following verb is almost always in future-tense, though it might be in present-tense if the request is an immediate command.

Are you waiting for me?

Puf-afe akiś-oĭa paĭ husa?
be-2s.FORM wait-PTCP for 1s

Is this the first kitten of the litter?

Kam-i op-asasa huka umati?
be-3s.INAN GEN-litter first kitten
Genitive precedes other demonstratives.

Are these shoes too big for you?

Eloĭ-ki sauĭ-ki kam-a takeĭ aluĭ fao pepa?
DET.this-DU shoe-DU be-2s too.much big for 2s
As an opinion, takeĭ always precedes the word it modifies, even when it's an adjective.

How wide is the River?

Salo toaĭ ose kam-i?
what width river be-3s.AN


Pu ioĭs-i.
now.IMP listen-2s

Sit here by me.

Pu osan-i śi oplo husa.
now.IMP sit-2s place by me

Keep this secret until tomorrow.

Kaman-i esloĭ si impolisaĭ fi-astoku.
keep-2s DEM.this with secrecy ABL-tomorrow
Pu can be omitted for polite requests and when the context makes the imperative mood obvious.

Come with us.

Pu fin-i si huru.
now.IMP go-2s with 1PAU.EX

Bring your friends with you.

Pepa aĭk-aleĭso-ru saĭ-emiri.
2s COM-friend-PAU LAT-here

Be careful.

Pu aeń-u tatu.
now.IMP care-2s carefully

Have some tea.

Aiś-e pefaĭ-ru-pu.
offer-1s tea-PAU-INDF
The plural is often used as a shorthand for the entirety of something, with the paucal denoting a portion of that. Uso pefaĭ is also acceptable. If the subject of the offer isn't clear from the context, the correct pronoun (or name) can be used before the verb.

Pip and his dog were great friends.

Pipo o-tahi pei kam-uru ufa-lo aleĭso-ki.
Pip and GEN-3s dog be-3DU.PST good-AUG friend-DU
It is common to use kam instead of puf to denote the permanence of the friendship.

John and Elizabeth are brother and sister.

Iono Elisape kam-ara akasa-ki.
John and Elizabeth be-3DU sibling-DU

You and I will go together.

Aĭkuki fin-ekuĭ.
Pepa aĭkusa finekuĭ is also acceptable, denoting separateness before joining together.

They opened all the doors and windows.

Kukof-ira uko t́otoĭ-ńa ako-ńa.
open-3PAU.PST all door-PL and window-PL
The plural markers are optional (or might be traded for paucal or dual suffixes).

He is small, but strong.

Kam-a aki, ieĭ koĭmeĭ.
be-3s small but strong

Is this tree an oak or a maple?

Salo eloĭ t́io kam-omo t́ukea-pu a t́uśaĭ-pu?
what this tree be-3s.INAN oak-INDF or maple-INDF

Does the sky look blue or gray?

Kompu iam-i tioto a oksomse?
sky seem-3s.AN or gray
Takuni is a dark shade of blue, like navy or cobalt. Tioto is lighter, like cyan or sky blue. Note that the sky is considered animate.

Come with your father or mother.

Pu toon-ii o-pepa aĭk-ańa o aĭk-aorma.
IMP come-2s.FUT GEN-2s COM-father or COM-mother
The possessive pronoun can be distributed across and/or clauses, or you can apply it to both nouns separately: opepa aĭkańa o opepa aĭkaorma.

I am tired, but very happy.

Puf-e saasu, ieĭ toa-lo.
be-1s tired but happy-AUG.

He played a tune on his wonderful flute.

Touĭn-ae sorio-pu op-empi tamese umu-tiatei.
play-3s.AN.PST tune-INDF GEN-3s.AN.FORM wonderful INS-flute

Toward the end of August the days grow much shorter.

Teĭkuneso asaśaĭ paĭ hat́upu paso-ńa akip-ilo takeĭ.
towards ending for summer day-PL shrink-3PL.INAN much
Teĭkuneso points at a specific (though possibly unknown) portion of the noun it modifies. (Paĭ asaśaĭ would point to the exact end.)

A company of soldiers marched over the hill and across the meadow.

Haokariso-pu aĭkses-ae piraĭ foĭ-t́o foĭ-tite.
company.of.soldiers-INDF march-3s.AN.PST over PER-hill and PER-meadow
Piraĭ is used before foĭt́o to disabiguate that they are going over the hill, not along its edge.

The first part of the story is very interesting.

Huka pukunuoĭ ta koĭasu kam-omo uĭlsi-lo.
first portion in story be-3s.INAN interesting-AUG

The crow dropped some pebbles into the pitcher and raised the water to the brim.

Aheu śuĭrim-io t́akoati-ru-pu saĭ-tatio tue śaĭrim-io uĭte saĭ-kata piraĭ.
crow drop-3s.PST pebble-PAU-INDF LAT-pitcher & raise-3s.PST water LAT-edge upper
Tue links verb phrases. links noun phrases and adjectives.

The baby clapped her hands and laughed in glee.

Seaĭ talus-ae tue iah-io si toa-lo.
baby clap-3s.AN.PST and laugh-3s.AN.PST with happy-AUG

Stop your game and be quiet.

Pu akiś-u o-pepa satuĭke tue tofoas-i.
IMP stop-2s GEN-2s game and be.quiet-2s

The sound of the drums grew louder and louder.

Opo-foru-ru suafao puf-iri opoĭo-moĭ-lo opoĭo-moĭ-lo.
GEN-drum-PAU sound be-3PAU.INAN.PST loud-COMP-AUG and loud-COMP-AUG

Do you like summer or winter better?

Eli ipan-oe ufa-moĭ-lo soĭ tarhuĭa a hat́upu?
which like-2s good-COMP-AUG of.the.following winter or summer

That boy will have a wonderful trip.

Eĭna kulo pam-iu tamese fiśaĭ-pu.
DET.that boy obtain-3s.AN.FUT wonderful trip-INDF

They won the first two games, but lost the last one.

Utip-ila huka satuĭke-ki, uoĭ teĺoś-ile oĺai eĭloĭ
won-3PL.ANIM.PST first game-DU but lose-3PL.ANIM.PST last

Take this note, carry it to your mother; and wait for an answer.

Pu oĭpup-a eloĭ karaati, ikeuk-a o-pepa sai-aorma; tue akiś-u paĭ puĭsaśaĭ-pu.
IMP receive-2s DET.this note deliver-2s GEN-2s LAT-mother and wait-2s for answer-INDF

I awoke early, dressed hastily, and went down to breakfast.

Soko feuń-e pokaĭ, foatatu t́asaf-ee, tue śuim-ee paĭ t́aśeĭ.
early wake-1s.PST REFL hasty dress-1s.PST and go.down-1s.PST for breakfast
The reflexive pronoun pokaĭ stands in for any noun, typically the last reference. Both feuń and t́asaf are transitive and require an object, but since the reflexive was used for the first verb in the sentence, the second can be omitted and will be understood to have a reflexive object as well.

Aha! I have caught you!

Etaĭ! kikaf-ee puf-e pepa!
Aha! catch-1s.PST PERF-1s 2s

This string is too short!

Eloĭ suo puf-ofo takeĭ aĭlo!
DET.this string be-3s.INAN too short

Oh, dear! the wind has blown my hat away!

Tosinu oso! okuĭ ataf-es-ae puf-i op-usa t́ańaśa fi-husa!
Oh dear! wind blow-TR-PST.3s.AN PERF-3s.AN GEN-1s hat ABL-1s
Tosinu oso literally means "smelly fish". It's considered a very mild expletive.

Alas! that news is sad indeed!

Etue! eloĭ karaisaĭ kam-omo tiase oplo aĺisaĭ-pu.
Alas! DET.this news be-3s.INAN sad beside/ truth-INDF

Whew! that cold wind freezes my nose!

Arua! Eĭna okuĭ kimi tososam-es-o op-usa kani!
Whew! DET.that wind cold freeze-TR-3s.AN GEN-1s nose
Arua is literally a noise a dog makes.

Are you warm enough now?

Taa puf-afe foasośo taoto oĭl-emiri?
yes/no be-2s.FORM enough warm LOC-now

They heard the warning too late.

Suaf-io puf-io fitisaĭśaĭ takeĭ sau.
hear-3PL.PST PERF-3PL.PST warning too late

We are a brave people, and love our country.

Kam-ou koĭ kart́aao tue takaeń-uoĭ op-una uĭtuka.
be-1PL.EX brave people and love-1PL.EX GEN-1PL.EX country

All the children came except Mary.

Uko eme-ńa toon-ile ieĭ fo-es-ae Omari
all child-PL come-3PL.AN.PST except not-do-3s.AN.PST Mary
Eme-ńa paoń-ae Omari toon-ile.
child-PL remove-3s.PST Mary come-3PL.AN.PST
[X] removing [Y] is a common way to indicate [X] except for [Y], and is understood as a noun phrase requiring a verb.

Jack seized a handful of pebbles and threw them into the lake.

Iaka takuaś-oe t́akoati-ru-pu tue otap-io sol-emoru saĭ-oa.
Jack sieze-3s.AN.PST pebble-PAU-INDF and throw-3s.AN.PST DAT-those.PAU LAT-lake

This cottage stood on a low hill, at some distance from the village.

Eloĭ upire ium-imi oĭl-t́o piruĭ, kam-imi fi-toĭka teta.
this cottage stand-3s.INAN.PST LOC-hill low be-3s.INAN.PST ABL-village far

On a fine summer evening, the two old people were sitting outside the door of their cottage.

Ufa hat́upu oĭl-tinse-pu, kart́a-ki tio osan-ire es-oĭa o-taski op-upire oĭl-t́otoĭ foaakoe.
fine summer LOC-evening-INDF person-DU old sit-3DU.PST do-PROG GEN-3DU GEN-cottage LOC-door outside.of

Our bird's name is Jacko.

Op-uki opo-posko asuoĭ kam-omo Iaka.
GEN-1DU.EX GEN-bird name be-3s.INAN Jack

The river knows the way to the sea.

Ose aof-i finiśi paĭ saĭ-uĭtese.
river know-3s.INAN way for LAT-sea

The boat sails away, like a bird on the wing.

Sia es-a suik-aĭa fi-emiri, iam-i pokso-pu t́ami feuś-oĭa.
boat do-3s.INAN sail-PTCP ABL-here seem-3s.AN bird-INDF while fly-3s.PTCP

They looked cautiously about, but saw nothing.

Teom-ira tatu oĭl-emori, uoĭ his-ire sefaśu.
look-3PAU.AN.PST cautious LOC-there but see-3PAU.AN.PST nothing

The little house had three rooms, a sitting room, a bedroom, and a tiny kitchen.

Upire aki tafem-imi pa tekoĭ-ru, alumani tekoĭ-pu, saasu tekoĭ-pu, pies-u tekoĭ-pu ati-li.
house little have-3s.INAN.PST 3 room-PAU welcoming room-INDF sleepy room-INDF and cook-ADJZ room-INDF small-DIM

We visited my uncle's village, the largest village in the world.

Taĭken-ue toĭka ati op-usa ańkasa, toĭka aluĭ-maĭ aĺpa toĭnaĭ.
visit-1DU.EX.PST village of GEN-1s uncle village large-SUPL world

We learn something new each day.

santusoĭmip-eo unia faśu-pu iaĭ paso-ńa.
learn-1s.INCL new something-INDF continuous day-PL

The market begins five minutes earlier this week.

Tuaniśi soko utis-uĭa paĭ ka fot́iliao-ru eloĭ foĭ-pasoao.
market early begin-3s.INAN.FUT by five minute-PAU DET.this PER-week

Did you find the distance too great?

Taa takeis-oseĭ okiisaĭ takeĭ okio?
yes/no feel-2s.FORM.PST length too.much long

Hurry, children.

eme-ńa, pu kot́op-ala.
child-PL IMP hurry-2PL

Madam, I will obey your command.

Emokefe, tokof-eke op-esa pakhaĭśaĭ.
Madam obey-1s.FUT GEN-2s.FORM command

Here under this tree they gave their guests a splendid feast.

Oĭl-emiri, keĭa eloĭ t́io, tikof-ira op-emki sol-torteno-ńa ufa-lo oesoĭseto-pu.
LOC-here under this tree threw.event-3PAU.AN.PST GEN-3DU.FORM DAT-guest-PL good-AUG feast-INDF

In winter I get up at night, and dress by yellow candlelight.

Oĭl-tarhuĭa tues-e feuń-oĭa pokaĭ oĭl-antaĭ tue t́asaf-aĭa kamo-kateu umu-pasoĭa aspiaa.
LOC-winter do.habitually-1s wake-PTCP REFL LOC-night and dress-PTCP ADJZ.from-candle INS-light yellow

Tell the last part of that story again.

Tuka pu ion-i oĺai pukunuoĭ ta koĭasu.
again IMP tell-2s last portion in story

Be quick or you will be too late.

Kot́op-ala tuuĭ puf-o takeĭ sau.
hurry-2s or be-2s.FUT too late

Will you go with us or wait here?

Eli fin-o aĭk-uru tuuĭ akiś-ii oĭl-emiri?
which go-2s.FUT COM-1PAU.EX or wait-2s.FUT LOC-here

She was always shabby, often ragged, and on cold days very uncomfortable.

Tues-ae puf-aĭa takoe, tia foapatio, oĭl-paso-ńa kimi takeĭ foufa.
do.habitually-3s.AN.PST be-PTCP shabby sometimes ragged and LOC-day-PL cold very uncomfortable

Think first and then act.

Takaif-a fiti es-i.
think-2s before do-2s

I stood, a little mite of a girl, upon a chair by the window, and watched the falling snowflakes.

Ium-ee, kusa-pu iam-io t́it́i-li, aĺpa au-pu aplo ako, tue his-ee pakasa-ńa uiseso.
stand-1s.PST girl-INDF seem-3s.AN.PST bug-DIM on chair-INDF by window and watch-1s.PST snow-PL falling

Show the guests these shells, my son, and tell them their strange history.

Op-usa ulota, pu ketis-i eloĭ-ru asie-ru sol-torteno-ńa tue ion-i o-kańa tanke okoĭlasu sol-emuńa.
GEN-1s son IMP show-2s DET-PAU seashell-PAU DAT-guest-PL and tell-2s GEN-3PL.AN weird history DAT-3PL.AN.FORM

Be satisfied with nothing but your best.

Uĭsim-ame esokaĭ sono op-esa ufa-maĭ umu-soniśaĭ.
satisfy-2s.FORM REFL only GEN-2s.FORM good-SUPL INS-work

We consider them our faithful friends.

Take-puaf-uo iki kam-iro op-uki śoki aleĭso-ki.
strongly-believe-1DU.EX that be-3PAU.AN GEN-1DU.EX faithful friend-DU

We will make this place our home.

T́okif-eko op-aĭkuki piaĭ sol-emiri.

The squirrels make their nests warm and snug with soft moss and leaves.

Iuĭt́io-ńa kuĭn-ole taoto ufa opo-taśńa sol-pikaĭla-ńa umu-pooĭ-ru umu-tano-ru.
squirrel-PL make-3PL.AN warm and comfortable GEN-3PL DAT-nest-PL INS-moss-PAU and INS-leaf-PAU

The little girl made the doll's dress herself.

Opo-kusa aki tiś-ae tuĭloa opo-karaki puĭa.
GEN-girl little make-3s.AN.PST alone GEN-doll dress

I hurt myself.

Tisos-ee pokaĭ.
hurt-1s.PST REFL

She was talking to herself.

Es-ae ion-oĭa sol-pokaĭ.

He proved himself trustworthy.

Takeketis-ee pokaĭ kam-aĭa t́uĭkasoĭmi.
prove-3s.AN REFL be-PTCP trustworthy

We could see ourselves in the water.

Iiś-ure his-oĭa pokaĭ-ki oĭl-uĭte.
can-2DU.PST see-PTCP REFL-DU LOC-water

Do it yourself.

Pu saśim-ii es-oĭa.

I feel ashamed of myself.

Takeis-e aaĭkopa.
feel-1s shameful
Alternately, one could say takeise aaĭkoe, which is merely "I feel ashamed."

Sit here by yourself.

Pu tapateso osan-ii oĭl-emiri.
IMP separated sit-2s.FUT LOC-here

The dress of the little princess was embroidered with roses, the national flower of the Country.

Opo-t́amuati aki puĭa kam-imi eat́-oĭa si piura-ńa-pu, kam-olo op-uĭtuka eonestuo suĭtu.
GEN-princess little dress be-3s.INAN.PST sew-PTCP with rose-PL-INDF be-3PL.INAN GEN-country symbolic flower

They wore red caps, the symbol of liberty.

T́asaf-ila t́ańaśa-ńa-pu ia, kam-olo piofafo eonestuiśaĭ.
wear-3s.AN.PST hat-PL-INDF red be-3PL.INAN liberty symbol

With him as our protector, we fear no danger.

Aĭk-empi oke t́aamaĭno, foa-tafem-aĭ kasu paĭ t́ami haĭsisaĭ.
COM-3s.AN.FORM as protector do.not-have-1PL.INCL fear for any danger
Aĭk- (COM) gets used for animate instruments and umu- (INS) is for inanimate instruments.

All her finery, lace, ribbons, and feathers, was packed away in a trunk.

op-empi uko ufalu etaĭkatu, esasta, sopio, olfi es-ile puf-aĭa saĭ-tatoimo-pu.
GEN-3s.AN.FORM all fine clothing lace ribbon & feather do-3PL. INAN.PST be-PTCP LAT-trunk-INDF

Light he thought her, like a feather.

Kusa osei tahi es-ae takaif-aĭa, oke olfi-pu.
girl light 3s.AN do-3s.PST consider-PTCP like feather-INDF
When keeping to pronouns would make the sentence unclear, the patient of a sentence is usually transformed into a noun, and the agent is inserted as a pronoun.

Every spring and fall our cousins pay us a long visit.

Uko oĭl-enatoĭ eropertu op-uru ańkaseme-ru tues-ore taĭken-oĭa huru. paĭ emori okio.
every LOC-spring & fall GEN-3s.PAU cousin-PAU do.habitually-3PAU.AN visit-PTCP 1PAU.EX for time long

In our climate the grass remains green all winter.

O-taśńa oĭl-kompisaĭ, śasa-ńa tues-ala kam-aĭa aktofo foĭ-tarhuĭa.
GEN-3PL.AN LOC-climate grass-PL do.habitually-3PL.INAN be-PTCP green PER-winter

The boy who brought the book has gone.

Kulo eslaĭ seat-ae fuhao puf-io fi-emiri.
boy bring-3s.AN book be-3s.AN ABL-here

These are the flowers that you ordered.

Eslaĭ-ńa kam-olo suĭtu-ńa iki tusin-oneĭ kańa. be-3PL.INAN flower-PL that buy-2s.FORM.PST 3PL.INAN

I have lost the book that you gave me.

Aĭoĭn-ee puf-e fuhao iki ket-oe husa sol-kafa.
lose-1s.PST PERF-1s book that give-2s.PST 1s DAT-3s.INAN

The fisherman who owned the boat now demanded payment.

Eĭeśuoĭ iki taktafem-io sia pu takpuĭp-io solioĭpaśaĭ.
fisherman that own-3s.AN.PST boat now demand-3s.AN payment

Come when you are called.

Toon-i oĭl-emori es-i katos-oĭa.
come-2s LOC-when do-2s call-PTCP

I shall stay at home if it rains.

Seefin-eke oĭl-piaĭ iu uĭlo toon-ole.
stay-1s.FUT LOC-home if rain come-3PL.AN

When he saw me, he stopped.

Oĭl-emori teom-io husa, akiś-ae.
LOC-when see-3s.AN.PST 1s stop-3s.AN.PST
NOTE: This can also be interpreted as “Where he saw me, he stopped.” Context is key.

Do not laugh at me because I seem so absent minded.

Pu fo-iah-ara saĭ-husa inau iam-e op-usa paĭe puf-i sokań-oĭa.
IMP not-laugh-2PAU 1s because seem-1s GEN-1s mind be-3s.AN swim-PTCP
“Mind is swimming” means absent-minded

I shall lend you the books that you need.

Foseń-eke saĭ-pepa sol-fuhao-ru iki suif-a kafa-ru.
lend-1s.FUT LAT-2s DAT-book-PAU that need-2s 3.INAN-PAU

Come early next Monday if you can.

Pu toon-ii soko saki oĭl-Kat́apaso iu iiś-ii.
IMP come-2s.FUT early next LOC-Monday if can-2s.FUT

If you come early, wait in the hall.

Iu soko toon-ii, pu akiś-ii aakoe takoĭ aluĭ.
if early come-2s.FUT IMP wait-2s.FUT in room big

I had a younger brother whose name was Antonio.

Huiam-ee akas-ati iki asuoĭ kam-imi Antonio.
have-1s.PST brother-DIM that name be-3s.AN.PST Antonio

Gnomes are little men who live under the ground.

Tisoĭ-ńa kam-ilo asulu-ńa aki iki haan-ole keĭt́ala.
dwarf-PL be-3PL.AN demihuman-PL little that live-3PL.AN underground
Ancient Kartara has no word for gnomes, but they have one for dwarves.

He is loved by everybody, because he has a gentle disposition.

Empi es-o takaeń-oĭa uko umu-kart́a, inau kam-i umili.
3s.AN.FORM do-3s.AN love-PTCP all INS-person because be-3s.AN gentle

Hold the horse while I run and get my cap.

Asuat-i enfai sokuĭ kot́o paĭm-eke op-usa t́ańaśa.
hold-2s horse while quick get-1s.FUT GEN-1s hat

I have found the ring I lost.

Taĭef-ee puf-e kat́afo iki aĭoĭn-ee kafa.
find-1s.PST PERF-1s ring that lose-1s.PST 3s.INAN

Play and I will sing.

Pu touĭn-i tue totof-eke.
IMP play-2s and sing-1s.FUT

That is the funniest story I ever heard.

Eĭloĭ kam-i aleku-maĭ koĭasu iki ioĭs-es-ee puf-e tahi.
that be-3s.AN funny-SUPL story that listen-TR-2s.PST PERF-1s 3s.AN

She is taller than her brother.

Kam-i isea-moĭ-lo eĭa o-tahi akasa.
be-3s tall-COMP-AUG than GEN-3s brother

They are no wiser than we.

Taśńa foa-kam-ilo atipa-moĭ-lo eĭa aĭkuńa.
3PL not-be-3PL wise-COMP-AUG than 1PL.INCL

Light travels faster than sound.

Pasoĭa-ńa kot́o-moĭ-lo eĭa suafao-ńa fin-ole
light-PL fast-COMP-AUG than sound-PL travel-3PL.AN

We have more time than they.

Op-aĭkuńa pasatisaĭ puf-i aluĭ-moĭ-lo eĭa o-taśńa eĭloĭ.
GEN-1PL.INCL time be-3s.AN large-COMP-AUG than GEN-3PL.AN

She has more friends than enemies.

Tafem-i taĭefu aleĭsu-ńa eĭa śuĭseu-ńa.
has-3s more friend-PL than enemy-PL

He was very poor, and with his wife and five children lived in a little low cabin of logs and stones.

Kam-io fooposo-lo, o-tahi aĭk-inti a ka aĭk-eme-ru puf-ila aki aĭlo oĭl-upire isom-imi atofisaĭ-ńa a t́aa-ńa.
be-3s.PST poor-AUG GEN-3s COM-wife and five COM-child-PAU be-3PL.AN.PST little short LOC-cabin made.of-3s.INAN.PST log-PL and stone-PL

When the wind blew, the traveler wrapped his mantle more closely around him.

Oĭl-emori okuĭ ataf-io, finoĭno taket́asaf-io o-tahi hipia taĭefu tasa kat́oĭa.
LOC-when wind blow-3s.AN.PST traveler wrap-3s.AN.PST GEN-3s mantle more close around

I am sure that we can go.

Puf-e t́aoń-oĭa iki iiś-u saĭ-emori.
be-1s assure-PTCP that can-1DU.INCL LAT-there

We went back to the place where we saw the roses.

Kat́in-ue saĭ-śi iki his-ue piura-ńa.
return-1DU.EX LAT-place that see-1DU.EX rose-PL

"This tree is fifty feet high," said the gardener.

Eloĭ t́io kam-omo kantaĭ ipoka foĭ-iseisaĭ,” esion-ae aanamomo.
this tree be-3s.INAN fifty foot PER-height gardener

I think that this train leaves five minutes earlier today.

Puaf-e iki eloĭ sia puf-eĭfo fi-śi ka fot́iliao soko oĭl-apape.
think-1s that this ship be-3s.INAN.FUT ABL-place five minute early LOC-today

My opinion is that the governor will grant him a pardon.

Op-usa puaśaĭ kam-i iki t́amuaĭ takeket-epe tahi sol-faimafo-pu.
GEN-1s opinion be-3s.AN that king grant-3s.AN.FUT 3s.AN DAT-pardon-INDF

Why he has left the city is a mystery.

Aĭani paĭ empi fi -toĭketo kam-imi ośisaĭ-pu.
why for 3s.FORM ABL-city be-3s.INAN mystery-INDF

The house stands where three roads meet.

Upire ium-imi emori iki pa oset́ala-ru otakis-ore pokaĭ-ru.
house stand-3s.INAN where that three road-PAU meet-3PAU.AN REFL-PAU

He has far more money than brains.

Tafem-i taĭefu-lo soi eĭa iatisaĭ.
has-3s.AN more-AUG money than intelligence

Evidently that gate is never opened, for the long grass and the great hemlocks grow close against it.

Aĺisaĭ iam-omo eĭna t́ukoĭ iaĭ es-aa foa-kukof-aĭa,
truth seem-3s.INAN that gate continuously do-3s.INAN not-open-PTCP
inau śasa-ńa okio paskapako-ńa aluĭ oas-ala tasa oplo kafa.
because grass-PL long and hemlock-PL large grow-3PL.INAN close by it

I met a little cottage girl; she was eight years old, she said.

Otakis-ee kusa-pu aki upire; asuat-ae po patupo, esion-ae.
met-1s.PST girl-INDF little cottage hold-3s.AN.PST eight year said-3s.AN.PST